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a) The underlined group of words is a noun phrase I know it is a noun phrase because a cat is a thing and fits the description of a noun. The grammatical function of the underlined group of words is subject. I applied a tag question to determine this was the subject. In absence of an operator I used the base do. So the sentence now reads The cat did fall out of the tree. Because the operator is the first word of the verb phrase it takes the tense. To get a question I move the operator to the front of the sentence so it now reads Did the cat fall out of the tree? Any words that are between the movement is the subject. So the cat is the subject.
b) The subject The cat is a patient. I know this because fell is an intransitive verb so nothing is suffering the effect of the cat. It is not an experiencer because it is not attributed any emotional response. The cat is suffering an action. This sentence could be the response given by a child to the question What happened to the cat? Knowing he would be in trouble if he admits he shot the cat with a bb gun the child tries to distance himself from the act by telling his parents The cat fell out of the tree. Under this interpretation it is a patient subject.
B. The senator was praised by several members of the press.
a) The underlined group of words is a prepositional phrase. The test I used to determine it was a prepositional phrase was the airplane and cloud test. That is if the beginning of the phrase is an action a plane would with a cloud it is a preposition. In this case a plane can fly by a cloud. The grammatical function of the prepositional phrase is predicate.
b) The semantic role of the underlined group of words is agent. The subject The senator is the recipient of the action of the press. Also the voice of this sentence is passive so I know the prototypical agent/patent semantic roles are reversed.


C. The waiter forced the rowdy customers to leave the restaurant.

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a) The underlined group of words is a noun phrase I know it is a noun phrase because the rowdy customers are people and fit the description of a noun. The grammatical function of the underlined group of words is direct object. So it is a noun phrase functioning as direct object. The rowdy customers are suffering the action of the subject, the waiter. This is a pretty prototypical case sentence.
b) The semantic role of the underlined group of words is patient. This is a prototypical type sentence and as such the direct object is the part action is transferred to in a sentence that contains a transitive verb.
D. The linguistics professor was sent a nasty letter by several of his
students.
a) The underlined group of words is a noun phrase I know it is a noun phrase because The linguistics professor is a person and fits the description of a noun. Using the criteria from A the underlined group of words is functioning as subject. So the underlined group of words is a noun phrase functioning as subject.


b) The semantic role of the underlined group of words is patient. It is problematic however because sent is a weak transitive verb because it is not clear if the agents several of his students had any effect on him. It is difficult to place The linguistics professor in any sort of category I placed it in the patient category because it was the best fit, not a perfect fit but almost.
E. The guy on the radio really irks me.
a) The underlined word is a noun phrase pronoun it is taking the place of Tim Freitag. It would sound wrong to a native speaker of English if I didnt replace my name with an objective pronoun me. The grammatical function of the underlined word is direct object. It is problematic to call it a direct object unless an interpretation is clearly defined. The guy on the radio is Howard Stern he professes to be a shock jock. Under the interpretation that the guy on the radio is actively trying to illicit a response then the underlined word is direct object suffering the effect of the subject. Me is a pronoun functioning as the direct object.
b) The semantic role of the underlined word is experiencer. The underlined word is experiencing an emotional response to an external stimulus. Because me has no control over the situation it is an experiencer.


F. Alexander wandered the streets for several hours.
a) The underlined group of words is a noun phrase I know it is a noun phrase because the street is a thing and fits the description of a noun. The grammatical function of the underlined phrase is direct object. This case is problematic as well. Wandered is a transitive verb but it is weakly transitive and cannot be rearranged to a passive. Also it is unclear whether Alexander is in fact affecting the streets.


b) The semantic role of the underlined word phrase is locative direct object. It is describing the location where the action of subject took place.


G. When did she write the poem?
a) The underlined group of words is a noun phrase I know it is a noun phrase because the poem is a thing and fits the description of a noun. The grammatical function of the underlined word is direct object.


b) The semantic role of the underlined word phrase is created direct object. The poem is an entity that is brought into existence by the verb write.
H. The cheese doesnt slice well after a few hours.


a) The underlined group of words is a noun phrase I know it is a noun phrase because the cheese is a thing and fits the description of a noun. The grammatical function of the underlined word phrase is subject.


b) The semantic role of the underlined word phrase is patient subject. The phrase is in fact the direct object it has been elevated to subject status however. The information in the predicate is describing the subject better.


I.Did the fake ID card get you into the club?
a) The underlined group of words is a noun phrase I know it is a noun phrase because the fake ID is a thing and fits the description of a noun. The grammatical function of the underlined word phrase is subject.


b) The semantic role of the underlined word phrase is instrument subject. The subject the fake ID is an inanimate object that is being wielded as though it were a key, it is allowing entrance.


J. We grew impatient with the delays.
a) The underlined word is a pronoun it is taking the place of an unknown number of people. The grammatical function of the underlined word is subject.


b) The semantic role of the underlined word is experiencer subject. The subject, the group of people is responding emotionally to an external force over which they have no control.
II
A. No money ever changed hands.


a)no: determiner b) no: quantifying determiner
ever: modifier, intensifier
B. The student didnt find Bills money.


a)Bills money: Genitive phrase b) genitive: object; possessive genitive
The: determiner, definite article
C. They gave themselves a raise.

a)themselves: pronoun functioning as noun phrase b) pronoun: reflexive, third person, plural
They: pronoun, personal third person, plural; a: determiner, indefinite article
D. They sent us on a wild goose chase.
a)us: Pronoun acting as noun phrase b) pronoun: objective personal pronoun, first person, plural
They: pronoun, personal third person, plural a: determiner, indefinite article
E. Everybody wants a piece of the action.
a) a piece of the action: Genitive phrase b) a: determiner, indefinite article the: determiner; definite article a piece of the action:periphrastic genitive; part/whole
everybody: determiner, indefinite
F. The neighbors eviction shocked everyone.


a)The neighbors eviction: Genitive phrase b) The: determiner; definite article neighbors: modifier, noun phrase functioning as modifier The neighbors eviction: objective genitive; possessive genitive
everyone: determiner, indefinite
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